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Native American Who Denies U.S. Or Canadian Citizenship Faces Deportation: Charlie "Wolf" Smoke Is Set to Be Deported to the United States Today After Months of Battling Canadian Immigration Authoriti

April 29, 2003
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Canadian immigration officials are attempting again to deport Charlie Wolf Smoke to the U.S.

Smoke claims he is an aboriginal Indian and that his ancestors were in North America long before white settlers. He says he can float freely across the border without proof of citizenship.

These are his words:

“My "Americanized" name is Charlie Smoke. My ancestry is Lakota& Mohawk. I am neither American nor Canadian–I am an aboriginal member of Turtle Island. Both "Pre-American" & "Pre-Canadian". An Indigenous person from the Western Hemisphere. A Native North American. A member of the Red Race. An Ikce Wicasa. A Lakota National."

Ambiguity surrounds Smoke’s citizenship because his birth was never registered and he was never registered as a status Indian.

He says he was born in his family’s house on the Akwesasne reserve, which straddles the borders of Quebec, Ontario and New York State.

Smoke was escorted to the U.S. border in January of last year but was refused entry when U.S. officials said there was not sufficient paperwork to prove he is an American.

After months of digging, Canadian immigration officials say they can prove Smoke is an American. They say there’s a birth certificate and fingerprints showing he’s really Roger Adams, a lost boy from Memphis, Tennessee.

We join Charlie Wolf Smoke at his home in Regina where he is scheduled to be deported in a couple of hours.

  • Charlie Wolf Smoke, native American who denies US or Canadian citizenship.

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